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1. The American economic system is. organized around a basically private-enterprise, marketoriented economy in which consumers largely determine what shall be produced by spending their money in the marketplace for those goods and services that they want most.
2. Thus, in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consumers, coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes, that together determine what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it.
3. If, on the other hand, producing more of a commodity results in reducing its cost, this will tend to increase the supply offered by seller-producers, which in turn will lower the price and permit more consumers to buy the product.
4. In the American economy, the concept of private property embraces not only the ownership of productive resources but also certain rights, including the right to determine the price of a product or to make a free contract with another private individual.
5. At the same time these computers record which hours are busiest and which employers are the most efficient, allowing personnel and staffing assignments to be made accordingly. And they also identify preferred customers for promotional campaigns.
6. Numerous other commercial enterprises, from theaters to magazine publishers, from gas and electric utilities to milk processors, bring better and more efficient services to consumers through the use of computers.
7. Exceptional children are different in some significant way from others of the same age For these children to develop to their full adult potential, their education must be adapted to those differences.
8. The great interest in exceptional children shown in public education over the past three decades indicates the strong feeling in our society that all citizens, whatever their special conditions, deserve the opportunity to fully develop their capabilities.
[参考译文]在过去的30 年中,公共教育中显示的对残疾儿童的巨大关注表明了我们社会中的一种中强烈的情绪,那就是所有的公民,不管其情况有多特殊,都应享有充分发展其
9. It serves directly to assist a rapid distribution of goods at reasonable price, thereby establishing a firm home market and so making it possible to provide for export at competitive prices.
10. Apart from the fact that twenty-seven acts of Parliament govern the terms of advertising,no regular advertiser dare promote a product that fails to live up to the promise of his advertisements.
[参考译文]除去议会有27 件法案来规范广告的条件,没有任何一个正式的广告商敢于推销一种商品却不能兑现其在广告中的承诺。
11. If its message were confined merely to information and that in itself would be difficult if not impossible to achieve, for even a detail such as the choice of the color of a shirt is subtly persuasive-advertising wound be so boring that no one wound pay any attention.
12. The workers who gets a promotion, the student whose grades improve, the foreigner wholearns a new language-all these are examples of people who have measurable results to show for there efforts.
13. As families move away from their stable community, their friends of many years, their extended family relationships, the informal flow of information is cut off, and with it the confidence that information will be available when needed and will be trustworthy and reliable.
14. The individual now has more information available than any generation, and the task of finding that one piece of information relevant to his or her specific problem is complicated, time--consuming, and sometimes even overwhelming.
15. Expertise can be shared world wide through teleconferencing, and problems in dispute can be settled without the participants leaving their homes and/or jobs to travel to a distant conference site.
16. The current passion for making children compete against their classmates or against the clock produces a two-layer system, in which competitive A-types seem in some way better than their B type fellows.
结构里面善于竞争的A 类好像在某个方面要比他们B 类的同辈更胜一筹。
17. While talking to you, your could-be employer is deciding whether your education, your experience, and other qualifications will pay him to employ you and your "wares" and abilities must be displayed in an orderly and reasonably connected manner.
18. The Corporation will survive as a publicly funded broadcasting organization, at least for the time being, but its role, its size and its programs are now the subject of a nation wide debate in Britain.
19. The debate was launched by the Government, which invited anyone with an opinion of the BBC--including ordinary listeners and viewer to say what was good or bad about the Corporation, and even whether they thought it was worth keeping.
20. The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large profess signal element and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders.
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21. Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class, an element in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners: and almost equally detached from the responsible management of business.

  [参考译文] 这样巨大而非个人的对资金和产业的操纵极大地增加了股东的数量和他 们作为一个阶级的重要性,这是国家生活中代表不负责任的财富的一个因素,这种财富不但远离了土地和土地拥有者的责任,而且几乎同样与 公司的负责任的管理毫无关系。

  22. Towns like Bournemouth and Eastbourne sprang up to house large "comfortable" classes who had retired on their incomes, and who had no relation to the rest of the community except that of drawing dividends and occasionally attending a shareholders" meeting to dictate their orders to the management.

  [参考译文] 像伯恩茅斯和伊斯特本这样的城镇的涌现是为了给那些数量很多的"舒适"阶级提供居住场所。这些人依赖于其丰厚收入而不工作,他们除了 分红和偶尔参加一下股东大会,向管理层口授一下自己的命令之外,跟社会的其他阶层毫无瓜葛。

  23. The "shareholders" as such had no knowledge of the lives, thoughts or needs of the workmen employed by the company in which he held shares, and his influence on the relations of capital and labor was not good.

  [参考译文] 这样的"股东"对他拥有股份的公司所雇用的工人们的生活、思想和需求一无所知,而且他们对劳资双方的关系都不会产生积极的影响。

  24. The paid manager acting for the company was in more direct relation with the men and their demands, but even he had seldom that familiar personal knowledge of the workmen which the employer had often had under the more patriarchal system of the old family business now passing away.

  [参考译文] 代表公司的花钱雇来的经理与工人及其需求的关系更加直接,但是就连 他对工人们也没有那种熟识的私人之间的了解。而在现在正在消失的古老家族公司的那种更加家长式的制度下的雇主们却常常对他们的工人有 这样的私人关系。

  25. Among the many shaping factors, I would single out the country"s excellent elementary schools: a labor force that welcomed the new technology; the practice of giving premiums to inventors; and above all the American genius for nonverbal, "spatial" thinking about things technological.

  [参考译文] 在许多形成因素当中,我将挑选出这些:这个国家优秀的小学教育:欢 迎新技术的劳动者们:奖励发明者的做法;而且最重要的是美国人在对那些技术性事物的非言语的、"空间性的"思考方面的天赋。

  26. As Eugene Ferguson has pointed out, "A technologist thinks about objects that can not be reduced to unambiguous verbal descriptions: they are dealt with in his mind by a visual, nonverbal process...The designer and the inventor.., are able to assemble and manipulate in their minds devices that as yet do not exist".

  [参考译文] 正如尤金·弗格森所指出的那样:"一个技术专家思考那些不能被简化成 能被清楚的语言描述的东西。这些东西在他的思维中是通过一种视觉的、 非语言表述的过程宋处理的……设计者和发明者……能够在他们的脑中 装配并操作那些还不存在的装置。"

  27. Robert Fulton once wrote, "The mechanic should sit down among levers, screws, wedges, wheel, etc, like a poet among the letters of the alphabet, considering them as an exhibition of his thoughts, in which a new arrangement transmits a new idea".

  [参考译文] 罗伯特·法欧特曾经这样写到:"一个技师会坐在杠杆、螺丝钉、楔子、 轮子等等当中,就像一个诗人沉浸在字母表的字母中,把这些字母看成 自己思想的展示,在这样的展示中,每种新的次序安排都传达了--种新 的思想。"

  28. In the last three chapters, he takes off his gloves and gives the creationists a good beating. He describes their programs and, tactics, and, for those unfamiliar with the ways of creationists, the extent of their deception and distortion may come as an unpleasant surprise.

  [参考译文] 在最后三章中,他脱下手套,将神造论者好好地揍了一顿。他描述了他 们的活动和战术,而且,对于那些对神造论者的做事方式刁;熟悉的人来说,神造论者的欺骗和扭曲事实的程度可能会令这些人有一种不快的诧 异。

  29. On the dust jacket of this fine book, Stephen Jay Gould says: "This book stands for reason itself." And so it does-and all wound be well were reason the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate.

  [参考译文] 在这本杰出的书的外纸封面上,史蒂芬·杰伊·古尔德写道:"这本书本 身就代表理性。"而它确实是这样的--而且如果理性成为神造论/地化 论之间的辩论中的惟一评判标准的话,一切就都好办了。

  30. After six months of arguing and final 16 hours of hot parliamentary debates, Australia"s Northern Territory became the first legal authority in the world to allow doctors to take the lives of incurably ill patients who wish to die.

  [参考译文] 经过了六个月的争论以及最后16个小时激烈的议会辩论,澳大利亚北部地区成了世界上第一个允许医生终止希望死去的绝症病人生命的立 法当局。
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31. Some have breathed sighs of relief, others, including churches, right-to-life groups and the Australian Medical Association, bitterly attacked the bill and the haste of its passage. But the tide is unlikely to turn back.

  [参考译文] 一些机构终于松了一口气,但是其他一些机构,包括教堂,倡导生命之 权的团体和澳大利亚医学协会,尖锐地抨击这个法案,指责法案的通过过于匆忙。但是大势已定,不可逆转。

  32. In Australia- where an aging population, life-extending technology and changing community attitudes have all played their partother states are going to consider making a similar law to deal with euthanasia.

  [参考译文] 在澳大利亚--人口老龄化,延长寿命的技术和变化看的社会态度,这些因素都在发挥作用一一其他的州也会考虑制定相似的关于安乐死的 法律。

  33. There are, of course, exceptions. Small--minded officials, rude waiters, and ill mannered taxi drivers are hardly unknown in the US. Yet it is an observation made so frequently that it deserves comment.

  [参考译文] 当然,例外是存在的。在美国,心胸狭窄的官员,粗鲁的传者,和没有 礼貌的出租车司机也并不少见。然而人们常常得出这样的观察意见,这使得它值得被讨论一下。

  34. We live in a society in which the medicinal and social use of substances (drugs) is pervasive: an aspirin to quiet a headache, some wine to be sociable, coffee to get going in the morning, a cigarette for the nerves.

  [参考译文] 我们生活在一种药品(毒品)的医学用途和社会用途都很广泛的社会里:一片用来止头痛的阿斯匹林,一些用来社交的葡萄酒,早上自己提提神 所喝的咖啡,一支用来定神的香烟。

  35. Dependence is marked first by an increased tolerance, with more and more of the substance required to produce the desired effect, and then by the appearance of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued.

  [参考译文] 对药品的依赖性首先表现为不断增长的耐药量,要产生想得到的效果所 需要的药品剂量越来越大,然后表现为当停止用药后,令人不快的停药症状的出现。

  36. "Is this what you intended to accomplish with your careers?" Senator Robert Dole asked Time Warner executives last week. "You have sold your souls, but must you corrupt our nation and threaten our children as well?"

  [参考译文] 上星期参议员罗博特多尔质问时代华纳公司的高级管理人员们:"难道这就是你们希望能够成就的事业?你们已经出卖了自己的灵魂,但是难道 你们还非要腐化我们的国家,威胁我们的孩子们吗?"

  37. "The test of any democratic society, he wrote in a Wall Street Journal column", "lies not in how well it can control expression but in whether it gives freedom of thought and expression the widest possible latitude, however disputable or irritating the results may sometimes be..."

  [参考译文] "对任何一个民主社会的考验,"他在《华尔街杂志》的一个专栏文章中写到,"不在于它能够多有效地控制各种意见的表达,而在于这个社会是 否能给予思考和表达的尽可能广泛的自由,不管有时候这种结果是多么的富有争议或令人不快…"

  38. During the discussion of rock singing verses at last month"s stockholders" meeting, Levin asserted that "music is not the cause of society"s ills" and even cited his son, a teacher in the Bronx, New York, who uses rap to communicate with students.

  [参考译文] 在-上个月的股东大会上关于摇滚歌词的讨论中,莱文宣称说:"音乐不是 社会问题的原因",他甚至还以他的儿子为例。他的儿子是纽约州布朗克斯的一个教师,并用说唱音乐与学生们进行沟通。

  39. Much of the language used to describe monetary policy, such as "steering the economy to a soft landing" of "a touch on the brakes" , makes it sound like a precise science. Nothing could be further from the truth.

  [参考译文] 有很多用于描述货币政策的词汇,例如"轻踩刹车"以"操纵经济软着 陆",使货币政策听起来像是一门精确的科学。没有什么比这更远离实际 情况的了。

  40. Economists have been particularly surprised by favorable inflation figures in Britain and the United States, since, conventional measures suggest that both economies, and especially America"s, have little productive slack.

  [参考译文] 经济学家们对英国和美国的有利的通货膨胀数据尤其感到惊讶,因为传 统的计量方法显示两国的经济,特别是美国的经济,几乎没有生产萧条的时候。
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41. The most thrilling explanation is, unfortunately, a little defective. Some economists argue that powerful structural changes in the world have upended the old economic models that were based upon the historical link between growth and inflation.

  [参考译文] 很不幸,这最令人震惊的解释有一点缺陷。一些经济学家认为世界经济 结构的强有力的变化已经结束了那个以经济增长和通货膨胀的历史关联为基础的旧的经济模式。

  42. The Aswan Dam, for example, stopped the Nile flooding but deprived Egypt of the fertile silt that floods left-all in return for a giant reservoir of disease which is now so full of silt that it barely generates electricity.

  [参考译文] 例如,阿斯旺大坝使得尼罗河不再洪水泛滥,但是它也夺去了埃及以前 所享有的洪水留下的肥沃淤泥--这些换宋的就是这么个疾病滋生的水 库,现在这个水库积满了淤泥,几乎不能发电了。

  43. New ways of organizing the workplace--all that re-engineering and downsizing--are only one contribution to the overall productivity of an economy, which is driven by many other factors such as joint investment in equipment and machinery, new technology, and investment in education and training,

  [参考译文] 企业重组的新方法--所有那些重新设计、缩小规模的做法--只是对 一个经济的整体生产力做出了一方面的贡献。这种经济还受许多其他因 素的驱动,比如结合设备和机械上的投资、新技术,以及在教育和培训上的投资。

  44. His colleague, Michael Beer, says that far too many companies have applied re-engineering in a mechanistic fashion, chopping out costs without giving sufficient thought to long-term profitability.

  [参考译文] 他的同事迈克尔·比尔说,有太多的公司已经用一种机械的方式实行公司内部的重新设计,在没有充分考虑长期赢利的能力下削减了成本。

  45. Defenders of science have also voiced their concerns at meetings such as "The Flight from S.cience and Reason" , held in New York City in 1995, and "Science in the Age of (Mis) information, which assembled last June near Buffalo.

  [参考译文] 科学卫士们在会议上也表述了他们的关注,比如1995年在纽约市举行的 "逃离科学与理性"会议,以及去年6月在布法罗附近召开的"(错误) 信息时代的科学"会议。

  46. A survey of news stories in 1996 reveals that the antiscience tag has been attached to many other groups as well, from authorities who advocated the elimination of the last remaining stocks of smallpox virus to Republicans who advocated decreased funding for basic research.

  [参考译文] 一项关于1996年新闻报道的调查显示,反科学的标签还可以贴在许多其他团体身上,从提倡消灭最后存留的天花病毒的权威机构,到鼓吹削减 基础研究经费的共和党人(都被贴上了反科学的标签)。

  47. The "true enemies of science, argues Paul Ehrllch of Stanford University, a pioneer of environmental studies, are those who question the evidence supporting global warming, the depletion of the ozone layer and other consequences of industrial growth.

  [参考译文] 环境研究的先驱、斯坦福大学的保罗·厄尔里西认为,科学真正的敌人是那些对支持全球变暖、臭氧层损耗以及工业发展的其他后果的证据提 出置疑的人。

  48. This development--and its strong implication for US politics and economy in years ahead--has enthroned the South as America"s most densely populated region for the first time in the history of the nation"s head counting.

  [参考译文] 这种发展--以及其对美国政治、经济在未来几年的潜在的强有力的影响一一使得南部在全国人口普查中有史以来首次成为美国人口最密集 的地区。

  49. Often they choose--and still are choosing--somewhat colder climates such as Oregon, Idaho and Alaska in order to escape smog.crime and other plagues of urbanization in the Golden State.

  [参考译文] 他们常常选择--现在依然这样选择--居住在那些气候较为寒冷的地 区, 比如俄勒冈、爱达荷,还有阿拉斯加,为的是逃避烟雾、犯罪, 以及"金州"(加利福尼亚)城市化进程中的其他问题。

  50. As a result, California"s growth rate dropped during the 1970"s, to 18.5 percent--little more than two thirds the 1960"s growth figure and considerably below that of other Western states.

  [参考译文] 结果,加利福尼亚的人口增长率在20世纪70年代时下降到了18.5%一一稍高于60年代增长率的三分之二,大大低于西部其他各州。
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51. Unlike most of the world"s volcanoes, they are not always found at the boundaries of the great drifting plates that make up the earth"s surface; on the contrary, many of them lie deep in the interior of a plate.

  [参考译文] 跟世界上的大多数火山不同的是,它们(热点)并不总是在由构成地球 表面巨大漂流板块之间的边界上出现;相反,它们中有许多位于一个板 块较纵深的内部。

  52. The relative motion of the plates carrying these continents has been constructed in detail, but the motion of the plates with respect to another cannot readily be translated into motion with respect to the earth"s interior.

  [参考译文] 携带这些大陆板块的相对运动已经能够被详细地表述出来,但是这些板 块相对于另一些板块的运动还不能轻易地解释为它们相对于地球内部的运动。

  53. As the dome grows, it develops seed fissures (cracks); in at least a few cases the continentmay break entirely along some of these fissures, so that the hot spot initiates the formation of a new ocean.

  [参考译文] 暂缺

  54. While warnings are often appropriate and necessary--the dangers of drug interactions, for example--and many are required by state or federal regulations, it isn"t clear that they actually protect the manufacturers and sellers from liability if a customer is injured.

  [参考译文] 尽管警告常常是适当而且必须的--比如对于药物相互作用的危险提出警告--许多警告还是按州或联邦政府规定要求给出的,然而(我们) 并不清楚,如果顾客受到伤害时,这些警告是不是确实可以使得生产者 和销售者豁免责任。

  55. At the same time, the American Law Institute--a group of judges, lawyers, and academics whose recommendations carry substantial weight--issued new guidelines for tort law stating that companies need not warn customers of obvious dangers or bombard them with a lengthy list of possible ones.

  [参考译文] 与此同时,美国法律研究所--由一群法官、律师和理论专家组成,他们的建议分量极重--发布了新的民事伤害法令指导方针,宣称公司不 必提醒顾客注意显而易见的危险,也不必连篇累牍地一再提请他们注意一些可能会出现的危险。

  56. In the past year, however, software companies have developed tools that allow companies to "push" information directly out to consumers, transmitting marketing messages directly to targeted customers.

  [参考译文] 但是,在过去的一年间,软件公司已经开发出工具,使得公司可以直接 将信息"推出"给顾客,直接把营销讯息传递给目标顾客。

  57. The examples of Virtual Vineyards, Amazon.com, and other pioneers show that a Web site selling the right kind of products with the right mix of interactivity, hospitality, and security will attract online customers.

  [参考译文] 像Virtual Vineyards,Amazon.com这样的先驱网站表明,一个将交互性、 热情服务和安全性合理结合以销售同类商品的网址是可以吸引网上客户注意的。

  58. An invisible border divides those arguing for computers in the classroom on the behalf of students" career prospects and those arguing for computers in the classroom for broader reasons of radical education reform.

  [参考译文] 有些人为了学生的就业前景为教室里放置电脑而辩,有些人为教育的彻 底改革中更为广泛的理由为教室里放置电脑而辩,这两群人之间有一条无形的界线。

  59. Rather, we have a certain conception of the American citizen, a character who is incomplete if he cannot competently access how his livelihood and happiness are affected by things outside of himself.

  [参考译文] 我们更应该具有的是作为美国公民的某种观念,这个公民人物如果不能 很恰当地认识到自己的生存和幸福是如何受到自身之外的事物的影响,那么其公民特征就是不完整的。

  60. Besides, this is unlikely to produce the needed number of every kind of professional in a country as large as ours and where the economy is spread over so many states and involves so many international corporations.

  [参考译文] 另外,在我们这么一个大国里,经济延展到这么多的州、涉及到这么多 的国际公司,因而要按照数量培养出所需的各类专业人员是不大可能的。
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61.But,for a small group of students, professional training might be the way to go since well-developed skills, all other factors being equal, can be the difference between having a job and not.

  [参考译文] 但是,对一个小部分学生来说,职业教育也是条可取的路径。因为在 其他因素相同的情况下,技能的娴熟是得到工作与否的关键。

  62. Declaring that he was opposed to using this unusual animal husbandry technique to clone humans, he ordered that federal funds not be used for such an experiment-although no one had proposed to do so--and asked an independent panel of experts chaired by Princeton President Harold Shapiro to report back to the White House in 90 days with recommendations for a national policy on human cloning.

  [参考译文] 他宣布自己反对使用这种非同寻常的畜牧繁殖技术来克隆人类,并下令 . 不准联邦政府基金用于做此类试验--尽管还没有人建议这么做--他 还请一个以普林斯顿大学校长哈罗得·夏皮罗为首的独立的专家组在90 天内向白宫汇报关于制定有关克隆人的国家政策的建议。

  63. In a draft preface to the recommendations, discussed at the 17 May meeting, Shapiro suggested that the panel had found a broad consensus that it would be "morally unacceptable to attempt to create a human child by adult nuclear cloning". 参考译文] 在5月17日的会议上所讨论的这份建议书的序言草案中,夏皮罗提出, 专家组已经达成广泛共识,那就是"试图通过成人细胞核克隆来制造人类幼儿的 做法在道德上是不可接受的"。

  64. Because current federal law already forbids the use of federal funds to create embryos (the earliest stage of human offspring before birth) for research or to knowingly endanger an embryo"s life, NBAC will remain silent on embryo research.

  [参考译文] 因为现今的联邦法律已经禁止使用联邦基金克隆胚胎(人类后裔在出生前的最早阶段)用于研究或者有意地威胁胚胎的生命,NBAC在胚胎研究上将保持沉默。

  65. If experiments are planned and carried out according to plan as faithfully as the reports in the science journals indicate, then it is perfectly logical for management to expect research to produce results measurable in dollars and cents.

  [参考译文] 如果试验是像科学杂志上的报告所示的那样如实地根据计划规划和实施的话,那么对管理层来说,期待研究能够产生可以用金钱衡量的结果是完全合理的。

  66. It is entirely reasonable for auditors to believe that scientists who know exactly where they are going and how they will get there should not be distracted by the necessity of keeping one eye on the cash register while the other eye is on the microscope.

  [参考译文] 审查者完全有理由相信,知道自己准备做什么、怎么做的科学家不应该因为必须一只眼盯着收银机,一只眼盯着显微镜而分散了注意力。

  67. Nor, if regularity and conformity to a standard pattern are as desirable to the scientist as the writing of his papers would appear to reflect, is management to be blamed for discriminating against the "odd balls" among researchers in favor of more conventional thinkers who "work well with the team."

  [参考译文] 如果科学家对标准式样的整齐划一的要求就像他论文的写作所反映的一 样,那么管理层就不该因歧视研究者中的"思维与众不同的人",喜欢其 中较为传统的"善于团队合作"的思想者而受到指责了。

  68. The grand mediocrity of today--everyone being the same in survival and number of off- spring--means that natural selection has lost 80% of its power in upper-middle-class India compared to the tribe.

  [参考译文] 当今人与人在很大程度上的平等--即面对自然淘汰法则人人机会均等,并且连子嗣的数目都一样--意味着和在印度土著部落中的情况相比, 印度中上层阶级中已丧失了80%的自然选择中的优势。

  69. When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion, it is advisable to find out what its advocates are aiming at, for, however farfetched and unreasonable their principles may seem today, it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal.

  [参考译文] 当艺术领域的一个新运动发展成某种流行时尚时,最好应该弄清这场运动倡导者的真正意图,因为,不管他们的原则在今天看来多么牵强无理,很可能多年以后他们的理论会被视为正常。

  70. With regard to Futurist poetry, however, the case is rather difficult, for whatever Futurist poetry may be even admitting that the theory on which it is based may be right--it can hardly be classed as Literature.

  [参考译文] 然而就未来主义诗歌来说,情况则不这么简单了,因为不管未来主义诗歌是什么--就算承认它赖以存在的理论基础都是正确的--这种形式也很难被归入文学。
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71. But it is a little upsetting to read in the explanatory notes that a certain line describes a fight between a Turkish and a Bulgarian officer on a bridge off which they both fall into the river--and then to find that the line consists of the noise of their falling and the weights of the officers, "Pluff! Pluff!" A hundred and eighty-five kilograms."

  [参考译文] 但当我们先是从注释中得知某诗行讲述了一个土耳其军官和一个保 加利亚军官在桥上动手打架并双双掉进河里,而后却发现该行诗中不过只充斥着"扑通,扑通,185公斤重"这类对他们落水时的动静以及对军官们体重的描写时,我们不免感到困惑不安。

  72. The coming of age of the postwar baby boom and an entry of women into the male- domiated job market have limited the opportunities of teen-agers who are already questioning the heavy personal sacrifices involved in climbing Janpan"s rigid social ladder to good schools and jobs.

  [参考译文] 战后婴儿潮一代的步入成年以及女性打入男性主导的劳动力市场使得青少年的发展机会变得极为有限,他们已经在不停地质疑为了爬上日本国内那通往优秀学校和体面工作的严酷的社会阶梯而做出的巨大的个人牺牲。

  73. Last year Mitsuo Setoyama, who was then education minister, raised eyebrows when he argued that liberal reforms introduced by the American occupation authorities after World WarII had weakened the "Japanese morality of respect for parents".

  [参考译文] 去年,当担任教育部长职务的濑户光夫争辩说二战后由美国占领当局引入的自由主义革新削弱了日本民族"尊敬父母的道德品质"的时候,舆论哗然。

  74. With economic growth has come centralization: fully 76 percent of Japan"s 119 million citizens live in cities where community and the extended family have been abandoned in favor of isolated, tow-generation households.

  [参考译文] 随着经济的增长,出现了集中化:全国1.19亿公民,其中整整76%的人口定居城市:在这里,原来的社区和多代同堂的大家庭已被摒弃,取而代之的是与外界疏于往来的、只由两代人组成的核心家庭。

  75. If the tradition of ambition is to have vitality, it must be widely shared; and it especially must be highly regarded by people who are themselves admired, the educated not least a-mong them.

  [参考译文] 如果野心的传统具有生命力,那么这传统必会为许多人分享;尤其会受到自己也受人仰慕的人士的青睐,在这些人中受过良好教育的可不占少数。

  76. Certainly people do not seem less interested in success and its signs now than formerly. Summer homes, European travel, BMWs--the locations, place names and name brands may change, but such items do not seem less in demand today than a decade or two years ago.

  [参考译文] 当然,人们现在对成功及其各种标志的兴趣似乎并不亚于先前。消夏 别墅、欧陆旅行、宝马车--地点、地名以及品牌或许会有变化,但这类事物在今天被人渴求的程度也似乎不会亚于一二十年前。

  77. Instead, we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles, which now more than ever seem in ample supply: the critic of American materialism with a Southampton summer home; the publisher of radical books who takes his meals in three-star restaurants; the journalist advocating participatory democracy in all phases of life, whose own children are enrolled in private schools.

  [参考译文] 相反,我们被款待看到这样一些虚伪的壮观景象,他们似乎比以前的任何时候都更供应充足:美国式物质主义的批判者却拥有位于南安普顿的避暑山庄:激进书籍的出版商却在三星级餐厅享用一日三餐;倡导在人生各个阶段的参与民主制的记者,他的子女却就读于私立学校。

  78. No clear-cut distinction can be drawn between professional and amateurs in science: exceptions can be found to any rule. Nevertheless, the word "amateur" does carry a connotation that person concerned is not fully integrated into the scientific community and, in particular, may not share its values.

  [参考译文] 科学领域的专业人员和业余爱好者之间划不出泾渭分明的界线:因为任何规则都有例外。然而,"业余"一词的确意味着相关人员不能充分融入职业科学界,尤其未能分享科学圈子的价值。

  79. The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the development of geology in the United kingdom.

  [参考译文] 很自然,这种趋势会在尤以数学或实验室训练为基础的自然学科领域表现最为明显,并且可以英国的地质学发展作例证来说明。

  80. A comparison of British geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper.

  [参考译文] 将过去一个半世纪英国地质学领域的出版物做一下比较,(我们)就会发现不仅对科研的主导地位的强调不断攀升,而且一篇可接受的科研论文所包含的内容的定义也有所变化。
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81. The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for a mateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widespread introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in the 19th century and then by several local geological journals in the 20th century.

  [参考译文] 这样一来总的结果便是业余爱好者想在专业地质学期刊…卜发表文章就更难了,而被广泛使用的论文评审推荐制度又进一步强化了这一结果,该种制度先是出现在19世纪的国家级刊物上,后又在20世纪被几家地方级地质学刊物所使用。

  82. A rather similar process of differentiation has led to professional geologists coming together nationally within one or two specific societies, whereas the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to come together nationally in a different way.

  [参考译文] 一个颇为相似的分化过程已经导致专业的地质学家走到一起组成一到两个全国性的专科学术社团,而业余地质爱好者们倾向于要么仍留在地方社团,要么也以另一种方式组成全国性机构。

  83. Sad to say, this project has turned out to be mostly low--level findings about factual errors and spelling and grammar mistakes, combined with lots of head--scratching puzzlement about what in the world those readers really want.

  [参考译文] 遗憾地讲,这次新闻机构可信度调查计划结果只获得了一些十分低层次的发现,比如新闻报道中的事实错误,拼写或语法错误(和这些低层次发现)交织在一起的还有许多令人挠头的困惑,譬如读者到底想读些什么。

  84. I believe that the most important forces behind the massive M;M wave are the same that underlie the globalization process: falling transportation and communication costs, lower trade and investment barriers and enlarged markets that require enlarged operations capable of meeting customers" demands.

  [参考译文] 我认为巨大的并购浪潮背后的最重要的推动力同时也就是促成全球化进程的那方基石:即降低交通运输成本,逐渐减少贸易投资壁垒,以及大幅度拓展市场,这些都要求更大规模的经营管理以满足消费者需求。

  85. A lateral move that hurt my pride and blocked my professional progress promoted me to abandon my relatively high profile career although, in the manner of a disgraced government minister, I covered my exit by claiming "I wanted to spend more time with my family."

  [参考译文] 一次侧面的不光明磊落的攻击伤害了我的自尊,阻碍了我事业的发展,使我不得不抛弃了那份引人注目的工作,尽管表面上我还要以一个蒙受屈辱的政府部长的姿态,通过声称"我只不过是想多和家人呆在一起" 来掩盖我的退出。

  86. I have discovered, as perhaps Kelsey will after her much-publicized resignation from the editorship of She after a build-up of stress, that abandoning the doctrine of "juggling your life", and making the alternative move into "downshifting brings with it far greater rewards than financial success and social status.

  [参考译文] 或许正像凯尔西在不堪积劳重负而公开地辞去她在《她》杂志社的编辑 一职之后一样,我已经发现,放弃那种"为生活忙碌"的人生信条并转 而追求比较悠闲的生活带给你的回报远远大于经济成功和社会地位。

  87. While in America the trend started as a reaction to the economic decline-after the mass redundancies caused by downsizing in the late " 80s-and is still linked to the politics of thrift, in Britain, at least among the middle-class down shifters of my acquaintance, we have different reasons for seeking to simplify our lives.

  [参考译文] 在美国,这一返朴趋势是以经济衰落的反应为开始的--那是在80年 代末期裁员而引起大量的失业之后一一现在依然与提倡节俭的政纲相: 关;而在英国,最起码在我所熟识的中产阶级返朴归隐者中,追求简约;生活的原因就多种多样了。

  88. For the women of my generation who were urged to keep juggling through the" 80s, down-shifting in the mid" 90s is not so much a search for the mythical good lift-growing your own organic vegetables, and risking turning into one-as a personal recognition of your limitations.

  [参考译文] 对于我这一代曾在整个80年代为生活奔波的女人来说,90年代中期出 现的归隐恬退与其说是我们寻求一种神话般的美好生活--用有机肥种植蔬菜,并且自己放弃一切的风险--不如说是我们清醒地认识到自身;能力是有限的这一事实。

  89. If you are part of the group which you are addressing, you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and it" 11 be appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairman" s notorious bad taste in ties.

  [参考译文] 如果你是你讲话对象中的一员,那么你就身处一种(有利)位置宋了解对你们来说都很普遍的经历和问题,而且你对餐厅中难以下咽的食物或老总臭名昭彰的领带品位进行随意评判也是合适的。

  90. There are already robot systems that can perform some kinds of brain and bone surgery with submillimeter accuracy--far greater precision than highly skilled physicians can achieve with their handsaone

  [参考译文] 现在已有一些机器人系统能够进行精确到毫米以下的脑部和骨骼手术——这要比极具技巧的医生单单用手精确得多。
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 91. But if robots are to reach the next stage of laborsaving utility, they will have to operate with less human supervision and be able to make at least" a few decisions for them- selves-goals that pose a real challenge.

  [参考译文] 但是如果机器人要达到节省人工的下一个阶段,它们将必须在更少的人力监督之下工作,而且还要能够自己作出至少几个决定--这些目标才会引发真正的挑战。

  92. But the human mind can glimpse a rapidly changing scene and immediately disregard the 98 percent that is irrelevant, instantaneously focusing on the monkey at the side of a winding forest road or the single suspicious face in a big crowd.

  [参考译文] 但是人类的头脑可以只迅速地瞟一眼一个快速改变的场面,然后立刻放弃98%的不相关部分,而马上聚焦于一条崎岖森林道路边的一只猴子,或者在茫茫人海中的一张可疑的脸。

  93. The OECD estimates in its latest Economic Outlook that, if oil prices averaged $22 a barrel for a full year, compared with $13 in 1998, this would increase the oil import bill in rich economies by only 0.25---0.5% of GDP.

  [参考译文] OECD在其最近的《经济瞭望》中估计,如果石油价格与1998年的每桶13美元相比在一年中平均为每22美元,这也只会给富裕的经济体的石油进口账单上增加GDP的0.25%到0.5%。

  94. One more reason not to lose sleep over the rise in oil prices is that, unlike the rises in the 1970s, it has not occurred against the background of general commodity-price inflation and global excess demand.

  [参考译文] 另外一个不应因油价上涨而失眠的原因是,这次不像70年代的那些次上涨,它并不是在普遍的商品价格暴涨和全球需求过旺的背景之下发生的。

  95. Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physician-assisted suicide, the Court in effect supported the medical principle of "double effect", a centuries-old moral principle holding that an action having two effects--a good one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen--is permissible if the actor intends only the good effect.

  [参考译文] 尽管它裁决并没有宪法权利来支持医生帮助下的自杀行为,最高法院实际上支持了被称为"双重效果"的医疗原则;这个已有几个世纪历史的道德原则认为一个可能有两个效果的行为--一个想要达到的好的效果和一个已经预见到的有害的效果是被允许的,如果行为的实施者想要的 只是好的效果的话。

   96. Nancy Dubler, director of Montefiore Medical Center, contends that the principle will shield doctors who "until now have very, very strongly insisted that they could not give patients sufficient mediation to control their pain if that might hasten death."

  [参考译文] Nancy Dubler,Montehore医疗中心的主任,认为这一原则将会保护这样一些医生,他们到目前为止还强烈坚持他们不能够给病人足量的镇痛剂来控制他们的疼痛,如果这么做会加速他们的死亡的话。

  97. On another level, many in the medical community acknowledge that the assisted--suicide debate has been fueled in part by the despair of patients for whom modern medicine has prolonged the physical agony of dying.

  [参考译文] 在另一个层面上,很多医疗界的人承认,关于医生帮助下的自杀的讨论部分是因为病人的绝望情绪,对他们来说,现代医学已经延长了死亡的身体痛苦。

  98. It identifies the undertreatment of pain and the aggressive use of "ineffectual and forced medical procedures that may prolong and even dishonor the period of dying" as the twin problems of end--of--life care.

  [参考译文] 它把对疼痛的治疗不足和盲目积极使用"有可能延长死亡时间甚至让死亡过程蒙羞的无效并且强迫性的医疗手段"视为生命临终医护的两个问题。

  99. In other words, there is a conventional story line in the newsroom culture that provides a backbone and a ready-made narrative structure for otherwise confusing new.

  [参考译文] 换句话说,在媒介机构的新闻采编室文化中存在着--套约定俗成的写作模式,为新闻报道提供了主干框架以及可直接套用的叙述结构。若没有这些,新闻内容就会一团混乱,让人摸不着头脑。

  100. If it did, it would open up its diversity program, now focused narrowly on race and gender, and look for reporters who differ broadly by outlook, values, education, and class.

  [参考译文] 如果新闻界真的注意到了问题的关键,它就应该进一步开放其多样化项目,这个项目现在还只单纯考虑招收不同种族和性别的员工,而进一步寻找那些世界观、价值观、教育水平和社会阶层大相径庭的各种记者。
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发布于:2011-07-20 14:31