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[教学教程]哲学:死亡 Philosophy -Death 课程总汇视频

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更多 发布于:2012-01-13 19:45
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Death  with Professor Shelly Kagan



About the Course

There is one thing I can be sure of: I am going to die. But what am I to make of that fact? This course will examine a number of issues that arise once we begin to reflect on our mortality. The possibility that death may not actually be the end is considered. Are we, in some sense, immortal? Would immortality be desirable? Also a clearer notion of what it is to die is examined. What does it mean to say that a person has died? What kind of fact is that? And, finally, different attitudes to death are evaluated. Is death an evil? How? Why? Is suicide morally permissible? Is it rational? How should the knowledge that I am going to die affect the way I live my life?

About Professor Shelly Kagan

Shelly Kagan is Clark Professor of Philosophy at Yale. After receiving his B.A. from Wesleyan University in 1976, and his Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1982, he taught at the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Illinois at Chicago before coming to Yale in 1995. He is the author of the textbook Normative Ethics, which systematically reviews alternative positions concerning the basic rules of morality and their possible foundations, and The Limits of Morality, which challenges two of the most widely shared beliefs about the requirements of morality. He is currently at work on The Geometry of Desert.

课本Texts
1    Plato,   Phaedo
2   John Perry,   A Dialogue on Personal Identity and Immortality
3    Leo Tolstoy,   The Death of Ivan Ilych

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沙发#
发布于:2012-01-13 19:52
Philosophy- Death
Lecture 1 - Course introduction        

Overview:

Professor Kagan introduces the course and the material that will be covered during the semester. He aims to clarify what the class will focus on in particular and which subjects it will steer away from. The emphasis will be placed on philosophical questions that arise when one contemplates the nature of death. The first half of the course will address metaphysical questions while the second half will focus on value theory.

Reading assignment:

None assigned

【观看视频】(因网络原因,有时需耐心等待5-10秒以上时间)

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发布于:2012-01-13 19:52
【视频】哲学:死亡 Death 02 The nature of persons: dualism vs. physicalism
Death
Lecture 2 - The nature of persons: dualism vs. physicalism        

Overview:

Professor Kagan discusses the two main positions with regard to the question, "What is a person?" On the one hand, there is the dualist view, according to which a person is a body and a soul. On the other hand, the physicalist view argues that a person is just a body. The body, however, has a certain set of abilities and is capable of a large range of activities.

Reading assignment:

Rosenberg, Jay. "Life After Death: In Search of the Question." In Thinking Clearly About Death. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1983. pp. 18-22

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地板#
发布于:2012-01-13 19:53
哲学:死亡 Death 03 Arguments for the existence of the soul, Part I
Death
Lecture 3 - Arguments for the existence of the soul, Part I        

Overview:

The lecture focuses on arguments that might be offered as proof for the existence of the soul. The first series of arguments discussed is those known as "inferences to the best explanation." That is, we posit the existence of things we cannot see so as to explain something else that is generally agreed to take place.

Reading assignment:

None assigned

【观看视频】(因网络原因,有时需耐心等待5-10秒以上时间)

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4楼#
发布于:2012-01-13 19:55
【视频】哲学:死亡 04 Introduction to Plato's Phaedo;
Death
Lecture 4 - Introduction to Plato's Phaedo; Arguments for the existence of the soul, Part II

Overview:

After a brief introduction to Plato's Phaedo, more arguments are offered in this lecture in defense of the existence of an immaterial soul. The emphasis here is on the fact that we need to believe in the existence of a soul in order to explain the claim that we possess free will. This is an argument dualists use as an objection to the physicalists: since no merely physical entity could have free will, there must be more to us than just being a physical object.

Reading assignment:
None assigned

【观看视频】(因网络原因,有时需耐心等待5-10秒以上时间)

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5楼#
发布于:2012-01-13 19:56
【视频】哲学:死亡 05 Free will and near-death experiences


Death
Lecture 5 - Arguments for the existence of the soul, Part III: Free will and near-death experiences

Overview:

Professor Kagan discusses in detail the argument of free will as proof for the existence of an immaterial soul. The argument consists of three premises: 1) We have free will. 2) Nothing subject to determinism has free will. 3) All purely physical systems are subject to determinism. The conclusion drawn from this is that humans are not a purely physical system; but Professor Kagan explains why this argument is not truly compelling. In addition, near-death experiences and the Cartesian argument are discussed at length.  

Reading assignment:

How to Write a Philosophy Paper [text]

Schick, Theodore and Lewis Vaughn. "Near-Death Experiences." In How to Think About Weird Things. New York: McGraw Hill, 2005. pp 307-323

【观看视频】(因网络原因,有时需耐心等待5-10秒以上时间)

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6楼#
发布于:2012-01-13 19:57
【视频】哲学:死亡 06 Arguments for the existence of the soul, Plato
Death
Lecture 6 - Arguments for the existence of the soul, Part IV; Plato, Part I        

Overview:

The lecture begins with a continued discussion of the Cartesian argument and its weaknesses. The lecture then turns to Plato's metaphysical views in the context of his work, Phaedo. The key point in the discussion is the idea that in addition to the ordinary empirical world that we are familiar with, we posit the existence of a second realm in which the Platonic forms exist. These forms are the abstract properties that we attribute to physical objects, such as beauty, justice, goodness and so on. Since it is the soul that conceives of these Platonic forms and ideas, Plato argues that the soul not only outlives the body but lasts forever. It is perfect, immaterial and indestructible.  

Reading assignment:
Plato, Phaedo, Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Co., 1977

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7楼#
发布于:2012-01-13 19:57
哲学:死亡 07 Plato: Arguments for the immortality of the soul
Death
Lecture 7 - Plato, Part II: Arguments for the immortality of the soul        

Overview:

The discussion of Plato's Phaedo continues, presenting more arguments for the existence and immortality of the soul. One such argument is "the argument from the nature of the forms," which states that because the forms are non-physical objects and cannot be grasped by something physical like the body, it follows that they must be grasped by the soul which must be non-physical as well. This argument is followed by the "argument from recycling" and "the argument from recollection."  

Reading assignment:
Plato, Phaedo, Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Co., 1977

【观看视频】(因网络原因,有时需耐心等待5-10秒以上时间)

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8楼#
发布于:2012-01-13 19:59
【视频】哲学:死亡 08 Arguments for the immortality of the soul (cont.)
Death
Lecture 8 - Plato, Part III: Arguments for the immortality of the soul (cont.)

Overview:

The lecture focuses exclusively on one argument for the immortality of the soul from Plato's Phaedo, namely, "the argument from simplicity." Plato suggests that in order for something to be destroyed, it must have parts, that is, it must be possible to "take it apart." Arguing that the soul is simple, that it does not have parts, Plato believes that it would logically follow that the soul is indestructible.  

Reading assignment:
Plato, Phaedo, Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Co., 1977

【观看视频】(因网络原因,有时需耐心等待5-10秒以上时间)

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发布于:2012-01-13 19:59
【视频】哲学:死亡 09 Plato: Arguments for the immortality of the soul (cont.)
Death
Lecture 9 - Plato, Part IV: Arguments for the immortality of the soul (cont.)
      
Overview:

Professor Kagan elaborates on the "argument from simplicity" and discusses in detail Plato's claims that the soul is simple, changeless and therefore indestructible. The final Platonic argument under discussion is the "argument from essential properties" in which the essential properties of the soul are addressed. At the end of the lecture the question of whether one needs to argue for physicalism is posed.  

Reading assignment:
Plato, Phaedo, Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Co., 1977

【观看视频】(因网络原因,有时需耐心等待5-10秒以上时间)

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